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Involvement of glutamate and reactive oxygen species in methylmercury neurotoxicity

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Involvement of glutamate and reactive oxygen species in methylmercury neurotoxicity

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Título Involvement of glutamate and reactive oxygen species in methylmercury neurotoxicity
Autor Aschner, Michael
Syversen, Tore
Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes de
Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira da
Farina, Marcelo
Abstract This review addresses the mechanisms of methylmercury (MeHg)- induced neurotoxicity, specifically examining the role of oxidative stress in mediating neuronal damage. A number of critical findings point to a central role for astrocytes in mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity as evidenced by the following observations: a) MeHg preferentially accumulates in astrocytes; b) MeHg specifically inhibits glutamate uptake in astrocytes; c) neuronal dysfunction is secondary to disturbances in astrocytes. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by MeHg has been observed in various experimental paradigms For example, MeHg enhances ROS formation both in vivo (rodent cerebellum) and in vitro (isolated rat brain synaptosomes), as well as in neuronal and mixed reaggregating cell cultures. Antioxidants, including selenocompounds, can rescue astrocytes from MeHginduced cytotoxicity by reducing ROS formation. We emphasize that oxidative stress plays a significant role in mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxic damage with active involvement of the mitochondria in this process. Furthermore, we provide a mechanistic overview on oxidative stress induced by MeHg that is triggered by a series of molecular events such as activation of various kinases, stress proteins and other immediate early genes culminating in cell damage.
Contido em Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas médicas e biológicas. Ribeirão Preto. Vol. 40, no.3 (mar. 2007), p.285-291
Assunto Astrócitos
Compostos de metilmercúrio
Espécies reativas de oxigênio
Estresse oxidativo
Glutamato
[en] Astrocytes
[en] Glutamate and selenocompounds
[en] Methylmercury neurotoxicity
[en] Oxidative stress
[en] Reactive oxygen species
Origem Nacional
Tipo Artigo de periódico
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10183/21225
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