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Antimicrobial resistance in respiratory pathogens isolated in Brazil during 1999-2000

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Antimicrobial resistance in respiratory pathogens isolated in Brazil during 1999-2000

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Título Antimicrobial resistance in respiratory pathogens isolated in Brazil during 1999-2000
Autor Barth, Afonso Luis
Rossi, Flavia
Dias, Cícero Armídio Gomes
Teixeira, Lucia
Sader, Hélio S.
Blosser, Renée S.
Jones, Mark E.
Sahm, Daniel F.
Thornsberry, Clyde
Yamakita, Juri
Karlowsky, James A.
Mendes, Caio
Critchley, Ian A.
Abstract The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis to commonly tested and prescribed agents was investigated during 1999-2000 and compared with results obtained during a previous 1997-1998 study. Of 448 isolates of S. pneumoniae collected and tested in 1999-2000, 77.2% were susceptible, 19.9% were intermediate, and 2.9% were resistant to penicillin, demonstrating that there were no major changes in susceptibility to penicillin from 1997-1998 (77.1% susceptible, 18.7% intermediate, 4.2% resistant). All S. pneumoniae isolates from 1999-2000 were susceptible to levofloxacin and vancomycin, and >90% were susceptible to the b-lactams (amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime) and macrolides (azithromycin and clarithromycin), showing that susceptibility to these agents also remained unchanged since 1997-1998. The most notable increase in resistance between the two studies was demonstrated by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, which increased from 23.4% to 38.6%. Penicillin resistance correlated with resistance to b-lactams, macrolides, and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole in both studies. In H. influenzae, the prevalence of b-lactamase-producing isolates remained unchanged (10.6% in 1999-2000; 11.0% in 1997-1998). All H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, and azithromycin, and showed no change between the two studies. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was present in 40.1% of isolates in 1999- 2000, and in 45.2% in 1997-1998. In M. catarrhalis, the prevalence of b-lactamase-producing isolates was unchanged (97.9% in 1999-2000; 98.0% in 1997-1998). The most active agents against M. catarrhalis were azithromycin (MIC90, <0.03 mg/ml) and levofloxacin (MIC90, 0.03 mg/ml). Overall, these results suggest that, in Brazil, between 1999-2000 and 1997-1998, there have been no significant changes in the susceptibility of respiratory pathogens to any of the commonly tested and prescribed agents with the exception of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for S. pneumoniae.
Contido em Brazilian journal of infectious diseases. Salvador. Vol. 5, n. 6 (dez. 2001), p. 294-304
Assunto Haemophilus influenzae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Resistência bacteriana
Streptococcus pneumoniae
[en] Antimicrobial resistance
[en] Respiratory pathogen
[en] Streptococcus pneumoniae
[en] Surveillance study
Origem Nacional
Tipo Artigo de periódico
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10183/37736
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